Solar Rooftop, How Good is it? It is one of the questions that must be addressed every time when it comes to the utilization of solar energy. Because in the present day that technology and innovation, the term Solar Rooftop is growing rapidly. It is not a new word. But it is a word that is quite familiar and it is spoken widely, but HomeGuru believes that there are still many people who still do not understand exactly how good the Solar Rooftop is. But you can find answers from this article.
What is Solar Rooftop?
Solar Rooftop is the solar system produces electricity in the roof from solar energy. In principle, Solar Power systems, whether installed on the roof (Solar Rooftop) of the solar farm industry, work on the same principle: Solar Panel converts solar energy into direct current (DC) electricity, which is called the Photovoltaic Effect. DC electricity can then be stored in the battery or change it to alternating current (AC) by a device called Inverter and can be used with various electrical devices within the home.
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Types of Solar Rooftop
When you know what Solar Rooftop is, you must first come to understand about its type. Because it will affect the design of Solar Rooftop for installation in accordance with the needs of the use of Solar Roof Top installed on the roof for generating electricity will be divided into 3 types as follows:
1. Solar Roof Top On-Grid System
The solar system produces electricity on the roof without the of batteries, also known as on-grid system. It is connected to the electricity grid’s transmission system. Residual electricity produced from daily use can be sold back to the government. It is the most commonly used system. Both home and business including industrial plants because it focuses on practical use during the day and at night switch to normal lights.
It is currently the most cost-effective option for anyone interested in installing a solar rooftop system. Because there are no maintenance costs, batteries or replacement batteries that are expensive. The on-grid system is permanently installed with a long service life of over 25 years. And there is a capacity (KW) to choose from as appropriate for the user. However, the on-grid system will not generate electricity if there is no power from the transmission line in the event of an interruption of power for maintenance. Because if the on-grid system still supplies electricity Electricity will go back into the transmission line which may be dangerous to the staff who perform the job. A good on-grid system requires a device that prevents reverse power transmission and is called ZERO EXPORT.
2. Solar Roof Top Off-Grid System
Solar cells generate electricity on the roof using batteries. But not connected to the electricity grid, also known as off-grid system (Off-grid System) is a system that connects to the backup battery (Off grid) without having to connect to the utility grid. The solar cells generate electricity and electric current will flow through the Charge controller to store electricity in the battery. During the day when there is enough sunlight. The photovoltaic power generates direct current (DC) and the inverter converts it into alternating current (AC) for use in the home electrical equipment. And the excess is stored in the battery. At night, the system uses the electricity stored in the battery. Suitable for areas where electricity is not accessible or want to use it to back up the electricity to be used when the power goes out, etc.
The off-grid system requires accurate calculations of the home’s electricity consumption to be sufficient for use in daily or even in the season with little sunlight. Also, the prices of batteries and off-grid inverters are much higher than on-grid systems. Therefore, off-grid systems are commonly used in areas where there is no electricity access. It is mostly used in conjunction with generators. In the event that the storage battery is not enough to use. This could be due to rain, overcast skies, or clouds, dust, or fog blocking the sunlight.
3. Solar Roof Top Hybrid System
Solar cells generate electricity on the roof using batteries and connected to the power line of the electricity also known as the hybrid system (Off-grid System), which is the combination of on-grid and off-grid (Hybrid) is a battery system. It reserves energy and working principle is when the solar panel receives solar energy. It will convert it into direct current (DC) energy and then forward in to the hybrid inverter to convert it into alternating current (AC), which will then be connected to the electricity distribution system of the Electricity Authority. One connector is connected to electricity for various applications.
The time when the system generates electricity in excess of home use. Electricity from the system is stored in the battery until it reaches full capacity and stop, and it will supply electricity to be used with home appliances again maybe at night. The electricity bill is usually more expensive than during the day. Hybrid systems are the most expensive and it is still not very popular today.
Choosing to use a Solar Rooftop to suit your home
Designing a Solar Rooftop to suit your home is essential to research. Since solar rooftop systems are quite expensive and have a long service life of more than 25 years. Choosing the right size of solar rooftop system for the house or building to be installed is very important. Things to consider are: Is the investment in installing a Solar Rooftop worth it? Once installed will it get the most benefit from the investment? Or simply translate that we need to use the various electrical equipment that is available according to the power capacity of the solar hole system? The tops produced in that hour at full capacity.
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Therefore, choosing the size of the solar rooftop system requires careful consideration, based on historical data on the actual electricity consumption from the electricity bill or plans to use electricity in the future that may have more. The method was used to assess two main factors of how much power we use each day, especially during the daytime. And estimate the size of the area required to install solar panels. Where the calculation for the size of the system can be done in 3 ways as follows:
1. Estimated from the electricity bill used
This is the easiest and fastest way to calculate. Initially, we had to look at the electrical behavior and estimate that the use of electricity during the day (08:00-17:00) and night (17:00-08:00) What is the ratio?
For example, in 1 month there is a 5,000 Baht electricity bill, we estimate the daytime electricity consumption is 70%, night 30% of the total electricity bill, therefore the daytime electricity consumption per month is 3,500 baht, the average electricity bill is 4.5. Baht per unit, so during the day we use electricity equal to 3,500 baht / 4.5 baht, which is 777 units, then we find the unit per hour by 777 units / 30 days / 9 hours equal to 2.8 units per hour. Based on this calculation, the most suitable system is a 3 kilowatt solar rooftop because it can generate a maximum of 3 units per hour of electricity, which corresponds to the consumption of 2.8 units per hour.
2. Collect the actual electricity consumption figures from the electricity meter
This method is more complicated than the first method, but it is also more accurate. Initially, write down the meter numbers by writing down the number of electricity consumption at the meter first time 8:00 AM and the second time at 5:00 PM. Do this for 3-7 days to get the data. Use real electricity during the day.
Day 1 read meter number in morning 0103 read it in evening 0133 Take 0133-0103 = 30 units.
Day 2 read meter number in morning 0153 read it in evening 0173 Take 0173-0153 = 20 units
Day 3 read meter number in morning 0203 read it in evening 0243 Take 0203-0153 = 40 units
It can be seen that within a period of 3 days, the numbers from the actual electricity meter will be collected for a total of 90 units, or if the electricity consumption per hour is 90 units/3days/9hours = 2.5 units per hour, then the optimal system size is EVE Solar Rooftop on 3 kW, because it produces a maximum of 3 units per hour. This corresponds to the actual electricity consumption of 2.5 units per hour.
3. See the electricity consumption of appliances that are used during the day
This is the power (watts) for each type of appliance that is activated during the day (8:00-17:00).
For example, 1 residence after using electrical equipment during the day as follows:
1. Air conditioner size 12000 BTU, number 1 unit, power consumption rate about 800 – 1,000 watts.
2. Air conditioner size 18000 BTU number 1 unit, power consumption rate about 1,300 – 1,700 watts.
3. One 40-inch LED TV with a power consumption rate of about 70 – 90 watts.
4. One 16-inch fan, the power consumption is about 45 – 65 watts.
5. 1 refrigerator, 14 cubic meters, the power consumption rate is about 200 watts.
6. 8 bulbs of 9 watts, the power consumption is about 72 watts.
As a result, the total power consumption of all electrical equipment used during the day is 2,927 watts. Hours will use electricity at 2,927 watts, so the optimal system size is the Eve Solar Rooftop on 3 kilowatts because it produces a maximum of 3 units per hour. This corresponds to the actual use of electricity at 2,927 units per hour.
Procedures for obtaining permission to install Solar Rooftop according to the law
We have already known Solar Rooftop; How Good is it? And how many types there are. But the installation of Solar Rooftop cannot be done manually immediately. Because there must be a process for apply for permission of the relevant government agency. The request for permission to install a rooftop solar system will be divided into 2 types:
1. The application for permission to sell electricity back according to the public power project (Must be installed with a capacity not exceeding 10 kilowatts) and must be a residential house only (Type 1).
2. The request for parallel lighting to install a free Solar Rooftop by installing with unlimited capacity of any size.
With relevant government agencies including the sale of lights back or installations for home or office use. Must contact all 3 government agencies as follows:
1. ERC (The Energy Regulatory Commission) to request an exempt energy operator and obtain a license to produce regulated energy.
2. Local Administrative Organization or the district office where the building to be installed solar rooftop is located in order to apply for a construction permit or building modification (Aor.1).
3. MEA (Metropolitan Electricity Authority) or PEA (Provincial Electricity Authority) in the area to inspect the equipment used for installation.
The process of applying for the installation of Solar Rooftop
1. Submit documents to the ERC to express the intention to install solar rooftop. After that, a license will be granted to the applicant to be able to produce controlled energy.
2. Since solar panels weigh up to 22 kilograms, many solar panels are used. Panels to put on the roof must be checked that the roof structure can support the weight or not. Therefore, the installer must submit a request for building an extension with the district office or local administration organization. Then, you will receive 1 license.
3. Bring both parts of the documents to the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) or the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), where the Electricity Authority will replace the electricity meter. A meter with reverse protection and if the electricity is to be sold back. The meter will be another type that can release electricity back to the government transmission line. All procedures are in accordance with the conditions of vendors for each product.
Steps to install Solar Rooftop on the roof
Inspecting the roof area
When calculating until the size of the solar rooftop system to be installed. Another factor to consider is the area where the solar panels will be installed.
For example, the size of the solar panel is 2 square meters, 2 meters long and 1 meter wide. A 330W polycrystalline panel (1 panel will use an area of 2 square meters). 3 kW, 10 panels will be needed to provide 3 kW of DC power to the inverter. The roof area must have at least 20 square meters of solar panel installation space, but if the roof area is less than 20 square meters, then 380W monocrystalline panel can be chosen (1 panel will occupy 2 square meters). 8 panels only, in the case of installing a large rooftop solar system from 30 kilowatts or more, there must be an additional 10% of the roof space to allow the solar panel rows to be used as a walkway for cleaning, clean or maintenance too.
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Details for installation
No matter how good the Solar Rooftop system is, but there are still some limitations. Because the solar rooftop system may only generate 80-85% of the electricity caused by the distance of the power cord. The further the wiring from the solar panel to the inverter, the greater the loss of electricity. Moreover, the ambient temperature of the solar panel can affect the production efficiency. Although, solar panels like sunlight. But don’t like the heat including the cleanliness of the panel. Dust accumulated on the glass of the solar panel. All of these factors can reduce the production of electricity.
Solar Rooftop Maintenance
Due to the solar panel, it is responsible for receiving solar energy directly. When used for a period of time, dust often accumulates on the windshield. This will reduce the transmission of light onto the internal solar cells. Production efficiency will also decline. Therefore, the solar panel needs to be cleaned. At least 1-2 times a year, depending on the dust and weather conditions of the place of use. The cleaning of solar panels is as follows:
1. Always choose to clean the panels only in the early morning in the sun or in the evening when the sun is light. Because cleaning in the sun or the panel is still high temperature will cause after cleaning. The panel sill has a slag build up which will be more difficult to clean.
2. Use clean water or a small amount of dishwashing liquid to help make the cleaning easier.
3. Spray strong water to remove dust from the panel first. Then use a soft clean cloth without sand dust or a floor mop to scrub and wipe all over the panel. But be careful not to have the metal part sharp in contact with the glass surface. This cause the glass to crack or break. This is the end of the cleaning process.
Now you have seen Solar Rooftop, How Good is it? And many people may be able to answer the question in mind that installing Solar Rooftop is worth it for each person’s home. Although, the Solar Rooftop story contains a lot of details to be learned, HomeGuru believes that it will continue to make improvements to the homes. It is always something that should be studied to get a variety of options. Keep up with technology, able to meet the living needs of the members of the house to be as comfortable and happy as possible.